„Great road” -,,The Hungarian trail”

First wines were brought to the Republic of Poland already in the XIV and XV century. read more

First wines were brought to the Republic of Poland already in the XIV and XV century. The commercial route run from Hungary and beyond Carpathians, through Małopolska, and particularly its southern part to Cracow and from there to the northern Poland, to Europe and even to far away Scotland. Podkarpacie was the commercial region and it supplied the greater part of Poland. The Republic of Poland was the most important purchased of Hungarian wines that in XVII i XVIII century were at the height of its fame. Saying ,,Nie masz wina nad Węgrzyna” [eng. There is no wine like the Hungarian wine] is well-know even nowadays.

In the period of the Casimir II the Great regin the route (also called „Droga Królewska” [eng. King's Road], ,,Via Regia Antigua”, ,,Wielka Droga”, [eng. Great Road] ,,Stara Droga” [eng. Old Road], ,, Szlak Węgierski” [eng. Hungarian Route] or „Szlakiem Koszycko-Krakowski” [eng. Koszyce-Cracow Route]) was one of the 10 most important communication arteries. The route from Hungary to Cracow run through Košice, Prešov, Lipiany, Lubovla, and in the territory of the Kingdom of Poland through Stary and Nowy Sącz, Czchów, Lipnica Murowana, Wiśnicz, Bochnia i Wieliczka. There were also turnings from the main road: for example sometimes people used to pass over Czchów, shortening the route going through Iwkowa, avoiding paying the custom tax without paying attention to the protests of Czchów townspeople. One of the sideways led through Myślenice. Border towns: Biecz, Muszyna, Piwniczna-Zdrój had the right to store and trade wine.

The public road, which was the commercial route, was subordinate to the royal family. Merchant had to hold on to their routes, paying the proper fees such as: mostowe [eng. bridge fee], cło [eng. Custom fee], and possibly myto [eng. toll road fee].

In the section Cracow – the border of the country the customs point were located for example in Bochnia, Czchow, on the river Łososina, in Stary Sąc, Rytro, Grybów, Piwniczna-Zdrój.

The role of the trade route, as almost the only means of communication at that time, was the milestone in the civilization development of the region and both adjacent countries: Poland and Hungary. The route was used by the knight's poczet [eng. units of soldiers], court officials, nobility, commoners, and first of all merchant vehicles, transporting from Hungary beloved in Poland wine, copper, iron, fur coats and olive oil, and driving cattle on the way back, taking salt from Bochnia, lead from Olkusz, cloth and leather.

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